Augustus C. Ludlow (1 January 1792 – 13 June 1813) was an officer in the United States Navy during the War of 1812. He was born in Newburgh, New York and was appointed midshipman when he was 12. He received a commission to be a lieutenant at age 18.
Ludlow was second in command to Captain James Lawrence on the USS Chesapeake during the ship’s engagement with HMS Shannon on June 1, 1813. It was to Ludlow that Lawrence said “Don’t give up the ship.” Both Ludlow and Lawrence were mortally wounded in that battle, and Ludlow died in Halifax, Nova Scotia on June 13, 1813.
Lieutenant Ludlow was buried together with Captain James Lawrence and Lawrence’s widow, in the graveyard of Trinity Church in Manhattan, New York City. Ludlow Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan is named for the Ludlow family. The ship USS Ludlow is named for Augustus as is the city of Port Ludlow in the state of Washington.
Alexander Sender Jarmulowsky (1841-1912) was born in Russia, in an area that is now part of Poland and moved to the United States in 1873. He rose from being a penniless orphan at age 3 to becoming a Talmud prodigy to ending his life as a wealthy Lower East Side banker and “macher.”
Mr. Jarmulowsky bought steam ship tickets in bulk and sold them to other immigrants at a reduced price prior to his family moving from Germany to the United States. Once in NYC, he opened an office at 54 Canal Street, an immigrant “bank” that provided a place for loans, deposits as well as the continuing sale of ship’s ticket. He made his wife a full partner in the business, which usually was not done at that time.
The bank was a huge success from the day it opened. Yiddish and Russian speaking tellers helped with transactions for the newly arriving immigrants. The bank was open all day on Sunday, a day when every other bank was closed. This allowed Sabbath-observant Jews to take care of their financial needs on the weekend. The bank survived survived bank runs in 1886, 1890, 1893, and 1901, always paying 100 cents on the dollar.
In 1887, he and other prominent businessmen in the community came together to create the Eldridge Street Synagogue. This was the first time that America’s Eastern European Jewish immigrants built a synagogue from the ground up. He also helped found a synagogue on the Upper East Side as well as giving to multiple Jewish hospitals and charities.
He opened the Jarmulowsky Bank building at 54 Canal Street at Orchard in 1912. The beautiful Beaux Arts façade featured a rooftop Greek tempietto which also served to hide the building’s water tower. It competed with the nearby Forward Newspaper Building for the title of “Tallest Building on the Lower East Side.” Jarmulowsky died less than a month after the building opened. The bank closed in 1914 at the beginning of World War I, when people were sending money home to Europe instead of investing in New York City and its bank. The building remains, but will become office and retail space. The dome which was torn down in the 80s, has been restored.
Louis Allmendinger, architect, designed and developed housing in 1908 and 1911, setting the standard for future tenement construction. The homes are characterized by three-story tenement buildings featuring yellow and orange Kreischer-brick facades, stone details, pressed-metal cornices, and ironwork at the stoops and area-ways. They are prevalent in Long Island City, Ridgewood and Woodside Queens. The buildings, known as “Mathews Model Flats,” (built by Gustave X. Matthews) at a cost of $8000 each. They constituted better-quality housing than previous tenement models, providing larger rooms and private bathrooms.
The tenements attracted working-class German immigrants from nearby Bushwick, Williamsburg, and the Lower East Side. Tenements/Flats had been known for their poor living conditions. Allmendinger, working with Matthews, changed the face of lower income housing in the outer boroughs of NYC.